Green Financing in Poland in the Context of the Public Sector
近年來，綠色金融在整個歐盟範圍內大受歡迎。 波蘭的情況也不例外。 綠色融資成為私營和公共部門的重要發展動力。 波蘭政府行為者需要將聯合國 (UN) 可持續發展目標和歐洲綠色協議的標準納入其治理。 分析人士經常爭辯說，私人和公共綠色投資需要同時發展，以實現最優化的繁榮水平。 然而，有些領域並不容易獲得私人資金，這就是政府需要加倍努力以確保融資實際上是綠色的。
2006 年至 2020 年間，歐盟 (EU) 經濟體的環保支出增長了 40%。可以肯定的是，隨著歐洲議會更加關注環保企業，這一趨勢將持續下去。儘管如此，必須強調的是，並非所有歐盟國家都決定平等地促進可持續發展。
圖 1（下圖）包含所有歐盟國家及其在環境保護方面的支出佔每個國家國內生產總值 (GDP) 的百分比。歐盟平均水平相當於 GDP 的 2%。雖然一些國家已經超過了 3% 的門檻，但許多國家仍然低於 1.5% 的大關。在這個排名中，波蘭在法國和意大利之間的排名相對較高。考慮到波蘭是歐盟名義GDP第六大經濟體，該國的貢獻無疑是有意義的。儘管如此，應該鼓勵中歐國家在短期內達到 2% 的總量，考慮到烏克蘭戰爭和歐盟範圍內的通貨膨脹對波蘭金融狀況的影響，這可能是一項艱鉅的任務。
為了應對 Covid-19 大流行帶來的經濟問題，歐盟提出了“下一代歐盟”基金，通常被稱為歐洲復甦計劃。 分配給所有歐盟經濟體的總預算超過 8000 億歐元。 每個國家都可以單獨管理其部分資金，這為投資綠色項目提供了巨大的機會。
波蘭政府將從復蘇基金中獲得總計 580 億歐元的資金，並承諾將其中近 40% 的資金用於與環境保護相關的問題。 政府發言人強調了在能源和降低能源強度、綠色和智能交通以及數字化轉型等領域的投資。 這些對公共部門的投資有望鼓勵私人投資者將其資源分配給許多綠色項目。
對上述信息的平衡評估表明，隨著歐盟私營實體對綠色融資的意識越來越強，公共部門也在發生同樣的情況。 政府必須將其資源分配給私營部門難以進入的領域。 波蘭已將其國內生產總值的近 2% 用於與環境保護相關的問題，這應進一步改善。 下一代歐盟基金是歐盟經濟體促進綠色項目發展的重要機會。 波蘭政府承諾為氣候變化相關問題分配大量資金。
In recent years, green financing has been significantly gaining popularity in the whole European Union. It is no different in the case of Poland. Green financing became a significant development driver in the private and the public sectors. The Polish governmental actors need to incorporate the United Nations (UN) Sustainability Goals and the criteria of the European Green Deal into their governance. Analysts often argue that private and public green investments need to develop simultaneously to achieve the most optimal level of prosperity. However, some areas are not as easily accessible to private funds, and that is where the government needs to work extra hard to ensure the financing is, in fact, green.
The Public Sector’s Green Expenditures
The expenditure on environmental protection among the European Union (EU) economies grew 40% between 2006 and 2020. It is safe to assume that this trend will continue as the European Parliament pays more attention to eco-friendly ventures. Despite that, it must be highlighted that not all EU countries decide to promote sustainable development equally.
Figure 1 (below) incorporates all EU nations and their expenditure on environmental protection as a percentage of each country’s gross domestic product (GDP). The EU average equals 2% of GDP. While some countries have already crossed the 3% threshold, many nations are still below the 1.5% mark. In this ranking, Poland places relatively high between France and Italy. Considering the fact that Poland is the EU’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, the country’s contribution is undoubtedly meaningful. Nevertheless, the Central-European nation should be encouraged to achieve the 2% total shortly, which may be a demanding task considering the impact of the war in Ukraine and the EU-wide inflation on the Polish financial state.
Next Generation EU
To combat the economic issues that arose with the Covid-19 pandemic, the EU proposed the “Next Generation EU” fund, often referred to as a recovery plan for Europe. The whole budget distributed among all of the EU economies is over €800 billion. Each country gets to manage the part of its funds separately, which provides an enormous opportunity to invest in green projects.
The Polish government will receive a total of €58 billion from the recovery fund and pledged to spend almost 40% of it on issues related to environmental protection. The spokesperson for the government highlighted investments in areas like energy and reduction of energy intensity, green and intelligent mobility, as well as digital transformation. Those investments in the public sector will hopefully encourage private investors to allocate their resources to many green projects.
A balanced assessment of the above information suggests that as the private entities in the EU become more aware of green financing, the same is happening in the public sector. The government must allocate its resources to areas less accessible to the private actors. Poland has been giving almost 2% of its GDP to issues related to environmental protection, which should be further improved. The Next Generation EU fund is a significant opportunity for EU economies to facilitate development in green projects. The Polish government pledged to allocate considerable funds to climate-change-related issues.
Kotecki, Ludwig. ZIELONE FINANSE W POLSCE. European Financial Congress, 2020, https://iof.org.pl/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/ZIELONE_FINANSE_w_POLSCE.pdf.
---. ZIELONE FINANSE w Polsce 2021. 2021, https://www.gov.pl/attachment/7c3bc86a-d19e-4a6e-8aa1-38e72bb31c32.
Ministerstwo Funduszy i Polityki Regionalnej. Czym Jest Krajowy Plan Odbudowy. 2021, https://www.gov.pl/web/planodbudowy/czym-jest-kpo2.
PwC Poland. Zielone Finanse Po Polsku. 2021, https://www.pwc.pl/pl/publikacje/zielone-finanse-po-polsku-jak-esg-zmieni-sektor-bankowy-i-finansowanie-firm.html.
About the Author
Patryk Chojecki is a researcher and writer at Taiwan Architecture and Building Center. He is currently a graduate student at National Chengchi University in Taipei. He is passionate about all topics related to international politics, environment, and international political economy.
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