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衡量 ACE 供應鏈中的 ESG

Measuring the ESG in ACE’s Supply Chain

長期以來,建築業一直是影響地球氣候和環境的主要參與者之一。它產生了全球 30% 以上的溫室氣體 (GHG),並使用了高達 32% 的自然資源。僅在英國,大約 40% 的碳排放來自建築業。根據英國私人承包和住宅開發公司 Willmott Dixon 的說法,他們的供應鏈系統占公司總排放量的 99%,考慮到這只是整個公司活動的一個方面,這個數字非常高。因此,對於試圖減少碳足跡和實現 ESG 目標的建築公司來說,專注於其供應鏈發展是非常重要的。

環境是建築供應鏈問題的最大因素之一。由於建築業是原材料的主要用戶之一,公司需要了解貨物的來源、是否以負責任的方式開採或造成了哪些環境影響,同時還要注意運輸造成的高排放的貨物。移動和材料轉移的水平增加了高碳足跡,再加上一次性使用的塑料包裝仍然是這些材料和商品的主要使用選擇。

已經有一些目標和努力來解決這個高碳排放問題。聯合國氣候變化大會 (UNCCC) 提出了 COP26 作為應對氣候變化的目標。該目標定於 2030 年,重點是將總排放量減少一半,並確保所有新建築均以淨零碳運行。同時,隱含碳必須減少至少 40%。該目標還提到了將現場溫室和用水量減少 50% 和將範圍 1 和 2 排放和廢物產生減少 50% 的目標。其他一些策略包括避免使用柴油汽車,轉向更可持續的替代品,例如使用生物柴油或電動汽車,以及在建築中進一步實施循環經濟。技術的迅速發展也已成為避免不必要的碳足蹟的一種選擇。到目前為止,模塊化、3D 打印、建築信息模型 (BIM) 和人工智能 (AI) 已被證明可以提高效率、縮短交貨時間,並且是在實際項目開始之前測試想法和設計的絕佳工具。一些公司還開始採用諸如射頻識別 (RFID) 等跟踪技術。

然而,有了所有這些目標和想法,ESG 的社會方面並沒有像環境方面那樣受到關注。 AEC一直被稱為勞動密集型行業。即使實施了高科技,人力仍然是該行業的主要方面,尤其是在施工期間。對建築工人的健康、安全和社會價值仍然缺乏認識。為了克服這個問題,英國一家名為 VolkerWessels 的承包商公司提出了一個名為 Wave 的集成應用程序,該應用程序允許其員工立即報告事件,以便項目經理可以製定後續行動。該應用程序將記錄項目中的所有事件,特別是嚴重事故,因此可以用作防止重複的指導。關於工人的社會價值,在世界許多地方,建築工人仍然被看不起,被認為沒有受過教育。與此同時,供應鏈中的現代奴隸制問題也更難追踪,尤其是當它位於更遠的地方並位於海外時。

解決所有這些問題並將 ESG 指標應用於整個供應鏈仍然是主要挑戰。轉向更環保的系統成本高昂,而且很難說服客戶和承包商這樣做。說服供應商更是如此,因為他們很難看到立竿見影的效果。我們可以採取的推動變革的第一步可能是允許這些客戶和承包商向他們的供應商施壓,並為那些設法減少排放並提供年度 ESG 報告的人提供激勵。供應鏈合作夥伴之間的關係也成為管理的一個非常重要的方面,因為它可以促進各方之間更加透明和清晰的溝通流程。最重要的是,與內部利益相關者進行教育和溝通也很重要。領導者是製定目標和計劃的人,但需要為他們努力的員工和員工,這使得他們對該主題的了解極為重要。

The construction industry has long been one of the major players that impacted the earth's climate and environment. It generates more than 30% of the world’s greenhouse gasses (GHG) and uses up to 32% of natural resources. In the UK alone, around 40% of the carbon emissions came from the construction industry. According to Willmott Dixon-a private contracting and residential development company based in the UK, their supply chain system accounted for 99% of the company's total emissions, which is an extremely high number considering it was only one aspect of the whole company’s activities. Therefore, it’s very important for construction companies who are trying to reduce their carbon footprints and achieve ESG goals to focus on their supply chain development.

The environment is one of the biggest factors of the construction supply chain’s issues. Since the construction industry is one of the primary users of raw materials, companies need to understand where the goods are sourced from, whether it was extracted responsibly or what are the environmental impacts it caused, while also paying attention to the high emissions caused by transportation of the goods. Levels of movement and material transfers add up to a high carbon footprint, joined by the fact that single-use, often plastic packaging are still the majorly used options for those materials and goods.

There have been some goals and efforts to tackle this high carbon emission issue. The United Nations Climate Change Conference (UNCCC) has come up with COP26 as a goal to fight climate change. The goal is set for 2030 and it focuses on cutting the total emission by half and making sure that all of the new buildings operate with net-zero carbon. Meanwhile, the embodied carbon has to be reduced by at least 40%. The goal also mentioned its target of reducing the on-site greenhouses and water consumption by 50% and 50% reduction in scope 1 and 2 emission and waste generation. Some other strategies include avoiding the use of diesel vehicles and moving towards more sustainable alternatives such as using biodiesel or electric vehicles and further implementing circular economy in constructions. The swift progression in technology has also become an option for avoiding unnecessary carbon footprints. By now, modularization, 3D printings, Building Information Modeling (BIM), and Artificial Intelligence (AI) have been proven to encourage efficiencies, reduce lead times, and were great tools to test ideas and design before the real projects begin. Some companies have also started to incorporate tracking technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID).

With all these goals and ideas, however, the social aspects of ESG didn’t manage to receive as much spotlight as its environmental counterparts. AEC has always been known as a labor-heavy sector. Even with the implementation of high technology, human labor is still the main aspect of the industry, especially during construction. There is still a lack of awareness regarding the health, safety, and social value of construction workers. To overcome this issue, a contractor company in the UK called VolkerWessels has come up with an integrated application called Wave that would allow their workers to immediately report incidents so the project manager can set follow-up actions. The application would keep a record of all the incidents within the projects, especially serious accidents so it could be used as guidance to prevent repetition. Regarding workers' social value, in many places in the world, construction workers are still looked down upon and deemed as uneducated. At the same time, there are issues regarding modern slavery within the supply chain that are harder to track, especially when it was further down the line and located overseas.

Tackling all these issues and applying ESG metrics on the whole supply chain are still the main challenges. Shifting into a more eco-friendly system is costly and convincing clients and contractors to do so is difficult. Even more so to convince suppliers as it’s hard for them to see the immediate results. The first step we can take to drive the change is perhaps by allowing these clients and contractors to pressurize their suppliers and provide incentives for those who manage to reduce their emissions and provide annual ESG reports. Relationships between supply chain partners also become a very important aspect to manage as it could promote a more transparent and clear communication flow between parties. On top of that, educating and communicating with internal stakeholders is important as well. The leaders are the ones who set the goals and plan, but it was the staff and employees who were required to work towards them, making their knowledge regarding the topic extremely crucial.

As the last note, there is still a lack of clarity and consistency between the measurement of the ESG metrics as different companies may provide a different set of standards, goals, and guidance, making it difficult for companies to have a standardized report. Companies might also need to take a more integrated approach and turn the ESG metrics as their main pillar for taking business decisions and future planning.

References

 

Enterprise Ireland. (2021). A Path To Net Zero Emissions: Decarbonising The Construction Supply Chain. Irish Advantage. Retrieved January 6, 2022, from https://globalambition.ie/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/EI-Green-Future-Construction1Latest.pdf.

Hageneder, C. (2021, October 29). Guest article: COP26 to break ground for zero carbon ... International Institute of Sustainable Development. Retrieved January 6, 2022, from https://sdg.iisd.org/commentary/guest-articles/cop26-to-break-ground-for-zero-carbon-buildings-future/

Kelly, D. (2021). Exploring the impact of ESG on contractors. Marsh McLennan. Retrieved January 6, 2022, from https://www.marshmclennan.com/insights/publications/2021/april-/exploring-the-impact-of-esg-on-contractors.html

Roberts, E. P. (2021, November 29). ESG reporting and Construction Industry. EY. Retrieved January 6, 2022, from https://www.ey.com/en_us/real-estate-hospitality-construction/esg-reporting-and-construction-industry

Rohrbeck, R., & Pauli, M. (2021, May 17). Circularity, industrialisation, digitalisation: The perfect storm to revolutionise the buildings sector? Circularity, Industrialisation, Digitalisation: The perfect storm to revolutionise the buildings sector? - EDHECVox - faculty and experts | EDHEC Business School. Retrieved January 6, 2022, from https://www.edhec.edu/en/edhecvox/strategie/circularity-industrialisation-digitalisation-perfect-storm-revolutionise

Topping, N. (2021). Building to COP26. Building To COP26. Retrieved January 6, 2022, from https://buildingtocop.org/

​About the Author

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Xaveria Livienna is a freelance writer and researcher for the Taiwan Architecture and Building Center, currently pursuing an MBA degree in National Taiwan University of Science and Technology.  Her main interests revolve  around digital and content marketing, as well as CSR and sustainability.

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