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CPTPP 邁向 ESG

CPTPP Towards ESG

什麼是 CPTPP?

最初由文萊達魯薩蘭國、智利、新西蘭和新加坡發起,於 2005 年以 TPSEP(跨太平洋戰略經濟夥伴關係協定)的名義成立了一個貿易聯盟。在接下來的幾年裡,其他國家開始加入該協議並在2010年,跨太平洋夥伴關係協定(又稱TPP)在澳大利亞、文萊達魯薩蘭國、加拿大、智利、日本、馬來西亞、墨西哥、新西蘭、秘魯、新加坡和越南等11個國家之間建立。 2016年晚些時候,奧巴馬政府提出加入自由貿易協定,旨在通過增加美國出口和支持美國就業來進一步突破亞洲,同時提高美國在亞太地區的競爭力。然而,僅僅一年後,唐納德特朗普總統決定讓美國退出該協議,TPP 被迫轉變為我們現在所知的 CPTPP(跨太平洋夥伴關係全面和進步協議)或 TPP-11。貿易夥伴關係由美國加入之前的最初 11 個國家組成,佔全球 GDP 的 13.5%。

CPTPP在其政策法規中仍然主要指TPP內的原始協議。它保持著雄心勃勃的貿易規則和市場准入,但在與美國的先前事件中更新了進入和退出程序。話雖如此,TPP 中的 22 條條款也已被暫停,因為它不再與 CPTPP 保持一致。完整的 CPTPP 協議共有 30 章。它涵蓋了 11 個國家之間貿易法規的各個方面,包括市場准入、政府採購、海關管理、投資、知識產權、中小企業等等。由於 CPTPP 致力於追求環境、社會責任和治理良好 (ESG) 的投資和貿易,因此還專門有兩個專門的章節討論勞工和環境問題。

CPTPP的投資資金總額至少達到5800億美元。由於他們致力於進一步參與 ESG 投資,這筆款項可以進一步分配以支持該地區的不同 ESG 項目,並提高各國的 ESG 意識。尤其是 CPTPP 的大多數成員仍然不是在 ESG 投資領域擁有狂熱參與者的國家。

關於環境問題的協議,CPTPP 提到其成員的目標是“促進高水平的環境保護和有效執行環境法”以及“優先事項和情況,締約方承認加強合作以保護和養護環境和可持續地管理他們的自然資源。本章還強調了在排放生產中採取措施和承擔責任的重要性,以及它如何影響臭氧層。以下子章節還提到了有關海洋污染、生物多樣性和漁業的主題,以及促進其成員轉向低排放能源和經濟的主題。除了強調這些問題外,CPTPP 協議還就其每個成員應如何採取行動應對相關事項提供了明確的指導方針。

勞工章節還討論了勞工權利的重要性以及如何保護這些權利等重要話題。還提到了勞動力素質的發展。對於其東南亞成員而言,這成為增加其競爭優勢的絕佳機會。外國投資對這些國家的興趣將不再僅僅因為它們的勞動力成本低,而是因為它們的人力資本質量,以及它們在世界上的參與和意義。通過加入CPTPP,它還將因與更強大國家的自由貿易而增強其議價能力。

儘管 CPTPP 尚未為 ESG 的治理事項指定專門的章節設計者,但很明顯,他們有意將 ESG 作為其政策和業務交易的一部分實施。通過建立強大的聯盟來強調其 ESG 活動,它還將鼓勵其他類似的協議,如 EFTA、NAFTA 或歐盟加入該運動。

What is CPTPP?

First initiated by Brunei Darussalam, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore, a trade coalition was created under the name of TPSEP (Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement) in 2005. Over the next few years, other countries started joining the agreements and in 2010, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, more commonly known as the TPP was established between eleven countries namely Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam. Later in 2016, Obama Administration proposed to join the free trade agreement as an effort to further breach into Asia by increasing American exports and supporting American jobs, while at the same time, boosting American competitiveness in the Asia-Pacific region. However, only a year later, President Donald Trump decided to withdraw the United States from the agreement and TPP was forced to shift into what we now know as CPTPP (Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership) or the TPP-11. Consisting of the original eleven countries before the US joined in, the trade partnership represents 13.5% of the global GDP.

CPTPP’s Renewed Agreement & Efforts Toward ESG

CPTPP, in its policy and regulations, still refers mostly to the original agreement within the TPP. It maintains the highly ambitious trade rules and market access, however with updated procedures on entries and withdrawal, in retrospect of the prior event with the United States. With that said, 22 provisions from the TPP have also been suspended as it no longer aligns with the CPTPP.  In total, there are 30 chapters in the complete CPTPP agreements. It covers all aspects of trade regulations between the eleven countries including market access, government procurement, custom administrations, investment, intellectual property, SMEs, and many more. With the CPTPP’s commitment to pursue environmental, socially responsible, and well-governed (ESG) based investment and trades, two specific chapters are also dedicated in regards to labor and environmental matters.

The CPTPP’s investment funds are accounted to reach at least $580 billion in total. With their dedication to further engage in ESG investing, this amount can further be distributed to support different ESG projects within the region and enhance the ESG awareness in the countries. Especially with the fact that most of the CPTPP’s members are still not countries with avid players in the ESG investment world.

On its accord regarding environmental matters, the CPTPP mentioned its members’ goals to ‘promote high levels of environmental protection and effective enforcement of environmental law’ as well as ‘priorities and circumstances, the Parties recognize that enhanced cooperation to protect and conserve the environment and sustainably manage their natural resources. The chapter also emphasizes the importance to take measures and responsibilities in emission production and how it impacts the ozone layer. The following sub-chapter also mentioned topics regarding sea pollution, biodiversity, and fisheries, as well as promoting its members to shift into low emission energies and economies. In addition to highlighting the issues, the CPTPP agreement also provides clear guidelines on how each of its members should take action in response to the relevant matters.

The labor chapter also discussed important topics such as the importance of labor rights and how to protect them. The development of labor qualities is also mentioned. For its Southeast Asian members, it becomes a great opportunity to increase their competitive advantages. Foreign investment will no longer be interested in the countries just because of their low labor cost, but instead because of the quality of their human capital, as well as their participation and significance in the world. By joining CPTPP, it will also enhance its bargaining power due to free trade with more powerful countries.

Although CPTPP has yet to have a specific chapter designer for the governance matters of ESG, it is obvious that they are having the intention to implement ESG as part of their policies and business deals. By having powerful alliances putting emphasis on their ESG activities, it will also encourage other similar agreements such as EFTA, NAFTA, or EU to join the movement.

References

 

Canada, G. A. (2022, March 4). Government of Canada. GAC. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from https://www.international.gc.ca/trade-commerce/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/cptpp-ptpgp/backgrounder-document_information.aspx?lang=eng

Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) Legal Text. Enterprise Singapore. (n.d.). Retrieved June 12, 2022, from https://www.enterprisesg.gov.sg/financial-assistance

Das, S., & Okun, S. R. (2021, September 30). My say: CPTPP offers malaysia best path to build back better. The Edge Markets. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from https://www.theedgemarkets.com/article/my-say-cptpp-offers-malaysia-best-path-build-back-better

Matano, S. (2018, September). USTR’s stance reflected in CPTPP environment chapter - mitsui. Mitsui & Co. Global Strategic Studies Institute Monthly Report . Retrieved June 12, 2022, from https://www.mitsui.com/mgssi/en/report/detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2018/10/10/1809c_matano_e.pdf

Overview of TPP. United States Trade Representative. (n.d.). Retrieved June 12, 2022, from https://ustr.gov/tpp/overview-of-the-TPP

Stillman, G. (2018, April 16). Next generation of quality development, investment in new TPP. Asian Development Bank. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from https://blogs.adb.org/blog/next-generation-quality-development-investment-new-tpp

​About the Author

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Xaveria Livienna is a freelance writer and researcher for the Taiwan Architecture and Building Center, currently pursuing an MBA degree in National Taiwan University of Science and Technology.  Her main interests revolve  around digital and content marketing, as well as CSR and sustainability.

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